Android is one of the most successful product of Google after search engine. Google’s decision to buy back in 2005 turned out to be a huge success for them. For the first time, Android came in HTC Dream in 2008, since then the proud Android owners have been eagerly waiting for Pastries’ names or more precisely Google Android updates like Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread and now Icecream Sandwich. I covered last article on Android Rooting and Flashing and this time I want to give you an insight on this amazing product from an application developer’s eye.

Android Bus

There are broadly two sections of development, one is Android OS development and other is Android application development. I will try to cover this article with intent to anatomize Android from a developer’s context and later on giving a head-on for development with help of tools and platform. Android app market is huge with approximately more than 20 million applications, as a result there are infinite opportunities in area of application development.
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When you listen to the Firewall your sensory nerves impulse the brain signals to reproduce a scene in your mind related to blocking of popular Social networking websites, Intrusion Capturing and blocking applications. Firewalls are not just about the blocking some web content or restricting access over a network. It is one big bowl of supernumerary possibilities. Though this article is not about the introduction to Firewall but still I want to reproduce few very ordinary real life scenes to produce the analogy with Firewall.

You are walking down a dark road suddenly someone jumps from the dark with a knife in his hand, force you and takes away all your money , Credit Card , DL and your Car keys. Around every corner lurks danger and with nowadays you definitely need a big, burly bodyguard down in that street with you. Firewall is a specially designed software to protect you from mean guys online. Without a Firewall you will be like a millionaire carrying all its wealth in a suitcase inviting anyone to come and take it all away.

For all those who are still dazed and confused about the analogy let me get real. Firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces an access control policy between two networks. Their two major mechanisms that exist in a firewall are for allowing and blocking of traffic based on the criteria specified. The third mechanism that has been added recently is keeping a log as this help for future predictions in case of future requests, because of the logging procedure we can now develop various tools to combat different kind of web attacks. Hence the three main fundaments of a firewall are Forwarding, Blocking, Logging/Accounting. A Firewall can be prepared to work either on your machine so that it can protect as you use the internet or it can made to run between your network and your connection to the internet . We will be looking at selection of these in this roundup.

The reason why Open Source Firewalls are better source to drench your curiosity about Firewall, is that these days Infrastructure tool is getting green with Open Source. You can see transitions in various organizations fully migrating to Open Source.

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In my previous post of GRUB I explained about the difference between GRUB legacy and GRUB 2.
I have emphasized this post especially on GRUB Shell, because this is something you have to deal with when you are under black sky of miseries, that means when you are unable to log on to your system using bootloader, or boot menu is not what you want.
This page is about the actions and directives you must be using even before booting when you have to edit and rescue system to successfully boot along. (Please note the following setting is going to be for GRUB 2)

Please note if you are not happy with the view of Bootloader menu and want something different instead, then hold down the Shift key and press ‘e’ to edit the menu. Do the changes and press Ctrl-x to boot with changes, escape to avoid them and c to go to the command line to perform diagnostics, load modules, change settings.
Some of the Normal mode commands for using inside GRUB are:
boot                               multiboot
normal                        ls
search                          linux
set                                   insmod
unset                            help
cat                                  chain

…click here to read more

Many of you must be knowing about it, would have been using it and the people who have used this  they know how addictive and whimsical, this thing is. For those who haven’t listened about it or just have listened someone just mumbling about it, I have created this piece of manual or rather say learn-play sheet for you. If you like to learn and play in Linux and haven’t yet played with MUTT, this is for you.

Before all that fun and learn I want to explain the concept of mail and general email-flow concept.

What is MUTT?

We  all know various mail services and we are using them like our organ.  Now can’t live without them literally. That is why we are extending them to our life. That is the reason Blackberry got famous because of their exclusive mail service blended in it; more providers came into play, they also tried to extend it to mobiles not exactly like Blackberry but in their own ways. Now every smart phone has Mail app. Mails are  an essential component of our life now.  Most prominent of them  Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail etc are all available across  the  cloud.

Now when we say mailclient, they are the  one which organize  those  mails and let you arrange /store  and read them according to your own preferences. You use them, some  of the popular ones  are: Mozilla Thunderbird, Microsoft office Outlook and Outlook Express and the  one which is topic of this  article  MUTT.  So now it is clear that mutt is an email client or what we say MUA(Mail User Agent).

These are following protocols used for mail  purpose:

  • IMAP4(Most recent one in the list)
  • SMTP
  • POP3
  • HTTP

IMAP4 replaced POP3 in business. IMAP4 is better/faster/lighter and more proper than POP3 so it got over POP3 in maximum mail services. IMPA4 and POP3 is for incoming. Ports defined for IMAP4 is 993, where it is  995 for POP3. SMTP is used for outgoing and port for it is 465. HTTP is not only dedicated to email services but it is used for accessing mailboxes. Secured version is used, so port is 443.
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GRUB stands for GRand Unified Bootloader, an open source release from GNU.


This is what you get an interactive scene giving you pseudo programming language options in multiple lines. If you have Windows thing installed in your system you get a little relax after seeing Window something something.
Bootloading is the term which reminds core OS classes if you are any how related to architecture of Operating System. Boot loading is like a lift board which tells you to which floor you want to get on. The people who have heard it for first time and are of confused and making pictures of your flashy boots in your mind, Bootloader ,also called a boot manager is term for a small program that places the operating system (OS) of a computer into memory. When a computer is powered-up or restarted, the basic input/output system (BIOS) performs some initial tests, and then transfers control to the Master Boot Record (MBR) where the bootloader resides. Bootloader is the door where you bell to enter into the system. It gives you complete list of OS that too with other advance options.
The modern GRUB is called GRUB 2 and it is indeed GRUB version number 2 as there are a lot of things absent inside the new GRUB and other vital changes too. …click here to read more